Le futur antérieur (future anterior)

Introduction

The futur antérieur corresponds to the future perfect in English. It indicates a supposition that an action will have been completed by the time of speaking, or by a specified point in the future.

Beispiel

  • Pourquoi est-ce que Xavier répare son vélo?
  • Il sera certainement tombé. Ou bien il aura peut-être eu une panne.
  • Oh non, nous voulons faire un tour à vélo dans une heure.
  • Pas de panique! D’ici là il aura réparé son vélo.

Usage

  • supposition about an action in the past
    Example:
    Il sera certainement tombé.He’ll probably have had an accident.
    Ou bien il aura peut-être eu une panne.Or perhaps he had a breakdown.
  • supposition that an action will have been completed by a specified point in the future (here you always need a specific mention of the time, so that you know it’s referring to the future)
    Example:
    D’ici là il aura réparé son vélo.By then he’ll have repaired the bicycle.

Construction

We need the future forms of avoir/être and the past participle of the verb.

personavoirêtre
1st person singular j’aurai

aimé

fini

vendu

je serai

parti

partie

partis

parties

2nd person singular tu auras tu seras
3rd person singular il/elle/on aura il/elle/on sera
1st person plural nous aurons nous serons
2nd person plural vous aurez vous serez
3rd person plural ils/elles auront ils/elles seront

In negative sentences, the past participle comes after the second part of the negation.

Example:
J’aurai rigolé. → Je n’aurai pas rigolé.I’ll have laughed.→ I won’t have laughed.
Je serai parti.→ Je ne serai pas parti. I’ll have left.→ I won’t have left.

For reflexive verbs, we put the reflexive pronoun and the auxiliary verb between the two parts of the negation.

Example:
Je ne me serai pas trompé dans mon calcul.I won’t have miscalculated.

Avoir or être

Most verbs construct the futur antérieur with the helping verb avoir. The auxiliary verb être is used:

  • for 14 verbs of motion and of staying still: naître/mourir, aller/venir, monter/descendre, arriver/partir, entrer/sortir,apparaître, rester, retourner, tomber and e.g. their derivative forms: revenir, rentrer, remonter, redescendre, repartir.
    Example:
    Je serai parti en vacances.I’ll have gone on holiday.
  • for reflexive verbs
    Example:
    Je me serai trompé dans mon calcul.I’ll have miscalculated.

Info

We use avoir when descendre, (r)entrer, (re)monter, rentrer, retourner and sortir are followed by a direct object. In this case, the meaning of the verb often changes.

Example:
À quelle heure seras-tu sorti ? What time will you have left?
but: Auras-tu sorti les carottes du frigo ? Will you have taken the carrots out of the fridge?

Participe passé

For the regular verbs that end in er/ir/re, the Participe passé is easy to construct:

  • If the infinitive ends in er, the participle ends in é
    Example:
    aimer – aimé
  • If the infinitive ends in ir, the participle ends in i
    Example:
    finir – fini
  • If the infinitive ends in re, the participle ends in u
    Example:
    vendre – vendu

For the irregular verbs, we have to look up their participle forms in the list of irregular verbs or simply learn them by heart.

Agreement of the participe passé

For certain verbs, the participe passé must agree in gender and number.

  • For verbs constructed with être, the participle agrees in gender and number with the subject.
    Example:
    Il sera allé à l’école en vélo.He’ll have gone to school by bicycle.
    Elle sera allée à l’école en vélo.She’ll have gone to school by bicycle.
    Ils seront allés à l’école en vélo.They’ll have gone to school by bicycle.
    Elles seront allées à l’école en vélo.They’ll (only girls) have gone to school by bicycle.
  • For verbs that are constructed using avoir, the participle agrees in gender and number with a direct object coming before the verb; otherwise it is invariable. If a pronoun is being used as a direct object, the pronoun comes before the verb, and the participe passé agrees in gender and number with this object.
    Example:
    Il aura réparé son vélo. → Il l’aura réparé.He’ll have repaired his bicycle.
    Il aura réparé sa roue. → Il l’aura réparée.He’ll have repaired his wheel.
    Il aura réparé ses freins. → Ils les aura réparés.He’ll have repaired his brakes.
    Il aura réparé ses lampes. → Il les aura réparées.He’ll have repaired his lights.
  • The participe passé of reflexive verbs generally agrees with the subject.
    Example:
    Elle se sera lavée.She will have washed herself.

    The subject (elle) and the direct object (s’= reflexive pronoun) are the same person, so the participle agrees with the subject.

    But the participe passé does not agree with the subject if the verb is followed by a direct object which is different from the subject.

    Example:
    Elle se sera lavé les mains.She will have washed her hands.

    When using the verb se rendre compte, the participe passé does also not agree with the subject. This is because compte acts as a direct object.

    Example:
    Elle s’était rendu compte de son erreur. She will have realised her mistake.

    The participe passé does not agree with the subject of the follwing verbs: se téléphoner, se parler, se mentir, se plaire (complaire/déplaire), se sourire, se rire, se nuire, se succéder, se suffire, se ressembler, s’en vouloir. This is because the reflexive pronoun is an indirect object. It is used in the sense of “each other” for these verbs.

    Example:
    Marie et Laurent se seront téléphoné.Marie and Laurent will have spoken on the telephone. (téléphoner à)

Show comments »

Leave a message